Personnel Motivations

Traditional methods of motivation are used by most organizations. To date, the traditional incentives are monetary.

In the era of globalization, technology and technology development, free access to information and opportunities for remote education in the United States, Western Europe, Russia and a number of other countries, the quality of labour resources has increased dramatically. Pay has ceased to be a major motivation for highly skilled personnel. This has been confirmed by numerous studies, employees have begun to expect additional benefits from companies, and the increase in remuneration has not led to intensification of work.

In addition, public organizations often have to apply non-traditional methods of motivation, as wages are very limited and the problem of attracting and retaining talented and skilled workers is very acute.

Thus, the use of non-conventional methods of motivation meets the following pressing challenges for management:

Maintaining the most chain workers;

:: Involving the most competent candidates in the labour market;

:: Improving the efficiency of work with an almost permanent salary fund.

Actual non-conventional methods of motivation can be divided into three groups (Figure 1.11).

Группировка нетрадиционных методов мотивации

Rhys. 1.11. Unconventional motivation group

Methods of non-monetary motivation

In a dynamic, often difficult economic environment, company management lacks much resources to reward its staff. However, demobilized workers are a threat: in times of crisis, such personnel will not be loyal to the company, can demonstrate dynamism or leave the firm in search of new opportunities.

To survive the economic downturn, companies cut staff budgets, cancel the bonuses, reduce the states. In this context, the motivation of the remaining staff is more difficult than ever. The methods of non-monetary motivation are primarily intended to preserve the pay fund. In doing so, the company ' s management demonstrates its interest in meeting the needs and interests of workers through non-monetary incentives. In the non-traditional methods of this group, a number of authors refer to the following:

Paternalism is a variety of managerial practices aimed at the care and care of the worker. The employee feels that he belongs to a single family and that the organization cares for him. Community perceptions are created through special events, such as the provision of extensive personal communication opportunities, the display by the head of responsibility for the difficulties of the subordinates, a system of additional incentives to reduce tension, etc.

For example, in the Soviet period, the pastoralist labour standards were dominated: dependence, which is an inherent attribute of paternalistic relations in the work relationship between the worker and the supervisor, was of a mutual nature. Soviet patronism was adequate to the prevailing mentality of workers in the exercise of the State ' s prescribed labour functions, naturally perceived by most citizens. This situation is due to the persistence of labour shortages in enterprises, high turnover, planning and expansion of the economy as a whole. Enterprises had a large network of social organizations defending workers ' interests (partisan and trade union organizations, labour dispute commissions, administration control, etc.).

In the post-Soviet society, dependence on workers and management has become largely one-sided: the worker depends on management decisions. However, the focus on the paternalistic standards of relations has not ceased to be relevant for a substantial part of the employees. Studies show that the elements of paternalism are expected and acceptable to the majority of the working-age population, among them:

• Rules of friendship and trust with management;

:: Unparalleled performance of any tasks of the direct supervisor;

:: Reliance on pay levels on management relations;

:: Consistent with any interference of the head in the professional duties performed;

:: Focus on receiving assistance from management in difficult housing situations.

Men can also be said to be less patient than women in the exercise of leadership and in the performance of any assigned assignment. It was found that the paternalistic norms were being strengthened with an increase in the age and length of work in the enterprise.

Patrolist regulations form a certain structure of the employees ' dependence on the company ' s management, but their prevalence varies significantly depending on the type of business in the form of ownership, type of activity, scope and success.

In addition to domestic experience, the concept of labour-related paternalism is common to Japanese companies, where the care of the worker is targeted by the enterprise, is characterized by a uniform pattern of clothing, opportunities to communicate with management, including in an unintentioned environment, life-based employment, etc.

Patricism - the common destiny of the enterprise and the workers - is enshrined in the general philosophy of the firm and is translated into all aspects of the activity.

The motivation of patriotism can be used both through internal mechanisms and through the existing ideology of the province, region, State. For example, at the company level, this may be the production of high-quality products with a firm emblem, the regular involvement of workers in setting targets, effective support for staff proposals and activities. At the macro level, patriotism is the love of his country, the desire to do everything possible for Fatherhood. Employees are thus given a sense of responsibility for labour results, and the value of these results throughout the economy is shown. Most often, such a global approach can be used in activities that have little or no advantage in the form of quick profits, but are objectively important for the survival of the population (high-technology, knowledge-intensive production and other intellectual and productive activities).

Staff in companies where such motivation is used may knowingly have significant difficulties and risks to serve the country where it is particularly difficult and necessary.

Patricism as Methods of staff motivation Entrepreneurships have been widely used in post-war periods; it is the foundation of corporate culture in countries with strong national ideology, as well as in public science-intensive industries.

Organizational incentives are to stimulate content, conditions and organization of work.

A means of benefiting from work is derived from the content of the work itself: it is necessary to organize the work of staff in a manner consistent with their natural motivation. It may be said that an attempt should be made to use the form of organizational ergonomics.

The stimulus eronomic is not new and is quite naturally applied to some extent and with some limitations in domestic organizations. Employees can act as comfortable as they can if they do. In addition, a human resource needs to be used, given its own desires (initiatives in negotiations, creativity, leadership, etc.) In fact, the golden human resources policy rule is used: "the man in the right place." Examples of organizational incentives will include: enriching work (the diversity of skills required to perform work, the completeness of assignments, the relevance and responsibility of work, the provision of self-reliance to the worker, timely feedback on compliance), flexible working schedules, the setting of adequate targets, the involvement of staff in active participation, etc.

Participatoryity and convenience - involves an employee in management, timely access to any information, participation in decision-making, participation in profits, participation in capital.

Under the current circumstances, an employee is not considered as an executive, he is becoming an active and interested participant in the organization ' s activities. Participation in management is part of the employee participation system, which also includes participation in profits and ownership. But if participation in profits and property is related to material remuneration, participation in management is external (constitutionalization) and internal motivation of an intangible nature (improvement of self-determination and competence by employees).

This participation can take place at several levels. At the level of a separate workplace or working group, decisions are related to the technical conditions of the working process, the relationship with colleagues, working conditions, current issues of human governance; at the company level, the participation of workers in strategic issues (targets and objectives of production, investment, profit distribution, organizational structure). In addition, these issues relate to the specific labour relationship of the Employer (work, leave, working time, social security). At the next level, employees are involved in the relationship between an enterprise and a trade union capable of being sectoral and intersectoral.

Participation in management can take a variety of forms, to varying degrees of efficiency, from prior consultations with employees to management decisions, participation in solving problems through the establishment of quality circles, autonomous self-administered groups, to the performance of certain managerial functions by representative bodies (counsel, committees, commissions).

To be effective, the following conditions must be met:

• Managers and staff should have the necessary time to ensure this process (in crisis situations such practices are not appropriate);

• The potential benefits of participation in management should exceed the costs (e.g., the time allocated to participation in management should not exceed the time devoted to major business operations);

• Workers are interested in participating in management;

• Staff capacity and qualifications should enable them to participate in management;

• Process participants should be able to communicate;

• No party should perceive involvement in management as a threat (e.g., employees may take management actions as potentially dangerous or may consider that participation in management is a threat to its status);

∙ The practice of participation in management should take place in the area of freedom of choice of the group ' s work assignments (each entity has no right to make a decision contrary to company policy).

Staff participation in the management and co-management of the organization as a promising development direction has been accepted by an increasing number of firms. One of the reasons for updating this method is the economic impact of its application: it is more beneficial and safer to attract funds from the inside (inventory of business shares) than on the part. Above all, some shares are carried out among line managers who are responsible for significant business or risk sharing. Such motivations have led to greater staff loyalty and increased responsibility for labour results.

Disclosure - career planning, staffing reserve, short- and long-term training, mentoring, rotation, promotion, etc.

This method of motivation is based on the need for self-realization and the desire of each individual to develop, building knowledge, skills and experience. The company ' s management, using this type of incentive, not only has a positive impact on the level of staff satisfaction, but also contributes to the human resource of its own organization. The transition to market relations means, among other things, a high change in the quality of labour requirements. Large organizations are increasing investment in training, as the external market and the training system are increasingly meeting the needs of high-technology industries. Many organizations see increased investment in staff development as a key factor in competition.

Disclosure of the company ' s staff ' s capacity contributes to the loyalty of staff, which in turn has higher capabilities and strong motivation to perform tasks. Naturally, this leads to increased productivity, and hence to an increase in the value of the human resources of the organization.

Psychological influence - can be carried out in a positive way, for example, the transfer of information on the worker ' s social performance, the evaluation of the supervisor and colleagues, the recognition of merit, and the negative - censure, punishment, risk of loss of work, etc.

This method of motivation depends largely on the identity of the leader who exercises influence.

The most common methods of psychological influence on the individual are:

:: Confidentiality is a consciously reasoned influence on another person or group of people with a view to changing their judgement, attitude, intent or decision, for example, in setting goals for the staff member;

:: Force is a conscious, unargumented human or group of people to change their condition, attitudes towards and predispositions to certain actions, for example, in situations where management is unpopular among the personnel of action: reduction of staff, cancellation of additional payments, changes in the learning system, etc.;

∙ Self-promoting - declaring its objectives and providing evidence of its competence and skills to obtain personal benefits; for example, such action may be taken by a supervisor to enhance personal authority in negotiations with new demanding customers in order to obtain the benefits of elections, appointments and others;

∙ Contamination - transfer of status or relationship to another person or group of people who understand this state or attitude; transfer of a state may be both inadvertent and arbitrary, removable - also, for example, in the formation of elements of corporate culture - public events, shared recreation, uniform form/style in clothing, etc.;

∙ The awakening of the impulse to be emulated is the ability to cause such a desire; for example, this method may be used by a charismatic leader whose image is associated with the company ' s name, its successes and achievements;

∙ Request - Calling upon the addressee to address the needs or desire of the initiator of the impact, for example: displaying a certain " weakness " of the head in the request leads to a subordinate ' s sense of importance; this may be a request for a certain project, a search for resources, a personal request by the head;

:: Coercion is a threat to the initiator to use his control capacity to obtain from the addressee of the required behaviour; for example, the most frequent method is based on security reasons, the head of the " reminds " of subordinates that in his power to deprive subordinates of any good or to change the conditions of work; the threats of coercion may not be realized and nevertheless have a strong influence on staff;

:: manipulation is a hidden inducement of the addressee to survive certain conditions, to make decisions and (or) to carry out the actions necessary to achieve his or her own objectives, for example: the worker ' s desire to lead may for a long time motivate him to organize the work of other people without additional material incentives.

Methods formed by currents in society are used in dynamic new-type developing companies. These motivations are based on the fact that rewards should not become customary and predictable. In many companies, repeated year after year, motivation programmes are now complemented by innovative methods associated with the so-called master ' s.

In recent years, this approach has included the following methods.

The creation of a caféteria social package using new options, for example, is now popular: the payment of membership in a prestigious phytness club, discounts on company partners (insurance, tourism, cosmetology, etc.), the payment of digital television and communication services.

Moreover, the very principle of caffetheria (often referred to as motivational menu) is an innovation in domestic management practices. The waste is the main motive that forces companies to think about cafeteria plan. By offering staff members to choose their own benefits, the company uses the funds it provides for them. The diversity of the staff member ' s motivational menu is determined by objective conditions: his or her position, a greyd, annual salary, performance, etc.

Coaching management is a dialogue between the manager and the worker aimed at setting real and interesting goals, promoting self-development in order to enable the staff member to acquire the necessary resources to achieve his or her own objectives. Coaching is not mentoring, as it does not include the task of the supervisor to transfer specific actions or to inform about how to deal with problems. Through the personal motivation of workers, mechanisms for self-sustaining knowledge, skills and skills are launched.

One of the approaches to co-sponsoring in business media argues that the manager should be balanced in three areas: management, leadership and coaching. In the intersection of the three jurisdictions, the maximum control efficiency is located. The high quality of business processes and administration is at the place where management and management are crossed. Where management and leadership intersects, maximum entrepreneurship, performance and vision must be shown. The role of integration and commanding plays an important role in the location of the closure of leadership and corn.

So there's a corn management, but it's not the whole governance process, it's just a small part of it. And much depends on the co-worker's competency, his consciousness and his skills to move to the corn. For example, crisis management does not imply a computing management for a subordinate. Coaching will certainly help find a better solution to the first person. And importantly, it should be aiding an outside pile. When the company's in crisis, it's not the time for a bunch of subordinate managers. This is the moment of clear and strict orders and of such clear and timely action.

Promotional missions are popular among young people (as travel is also an ongoing trend), best staff are delegated to work and rest at various exhibitions, seminars with the possibility of being a company face.

Modifying meetings are widely distributed in the area of sales (part of the training culture actively entering Russia from the United States of America); at certain intervals, managers at different levels meet subordinates, where preliminary results are being compiled, new targets are being developed, and staff who show the highest results are rewarded.

Competition - the relevance of this method is based on the fact that Russian culture is undergoing a significant transformation towards individualism: the young generation is focused on personal uniqueness and is motivated by success. Competition is stimulated through competition, competition, top-planning, etc.

Visualization of results clearly and aesthetically reminds staff of their personal effectiveness, and allows comparison of their performance with colleagues ' results. To this end, an info card is being distributed within the office, social media groups are established, and internal mail is sent.

Formulation of relevance is an effective method of using popular psychology and influence. Examples include a number of simple top management rules that allow for the design of correct staff installation:

• Treatment: welcome to staff members when passing and call them by name;

• Thank you: once certain assignments have been carried out, thanks the staff member personally; or the words "Thanks," "Youth" or something similar can be written on the paper leaflet and left in the workplace;

• Attention: To buy staff on certain dates and events something nice;

∙ Allocation: place the name and position of the worker over each workplace, or provide a beautiful brand name with a firm symbol

(Stresses the individuality of the worker and creates a sense of importance for the organization);

:: sensitivity: develop a reward specifically for those staff members whose activities normally do not notice.

Methods which are based on previously unused staff classifications, are used by small companies with special corporate culture, where young staff are mostly employed. The motivation system in such companies is based on the individual characteristics of the employees. The basis for identifying these features is very original concepts, such as:

• Staff zodiac constellation (comparison of individual professional horoscopes);

∙ National staff types (socialist, developing the Young concept of psychology, distinguish 16 types of identity as a result of different combinations of psychology).

We look at the current direction in psychology, the ethnic background and the 16 national types to better understand the motivation of each.

A socialist, or a personal typology or a social typology, describes people ' s interaction with the surroundings or social interactions. To this end, it classifies all people into 16 national types (or as they are referred to in the community, the TIMs are information metabolism). Every national type communicates with other people in a unique way. The socialist also classifies the interactions between the types, the main of which are dual. They happen between the kinds that most harmoniously add each other. Coming with your duel is the most comfortable kind of communication for each type.

The first sociological descriptions were made by Auschra Augustinauvichut in the early 1980s, but it was not able to complete this work.

The first complete description of all 16 types completed in 1985. Igor Wysband, using both Auschra's work and using others to write descriptions.

The national types are described below (see table 1.5).

Table 1.5

Recognition of national types







Jack London














Don Quichot








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